The Jewish Eras of the World

Abstracts and Summaries Part 1: Jewish Populations Last Update: Genetic Testing Service Get genetically tested to discover your relationship to other families, other Jews, and other ethnic groups. Pulver, Stephen Wooding, and Stephen T. Among the comparative populations were continental Europeans and European-Americans. Also used for comparison were 3 Middle Eastern populations: Palestinian Arabs, Druze, and Bedouins. Here we analyzed a large AJ cohort and found higher linkage disequilibrium LD and identity-by-descent relative to Europeans, as expected for an isolate.

History of the Jews in Portugal

Definition[ edit ] Narrow ethnic definition[ edit ] In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of in Portugal by order of King Manuel I. Sephardic law and customs , Maghrebi Jews , Mizrahi Jews , and Jewish ethnic divisions The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader , religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations.

In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian or North African origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy, meaning a majority of Mizrahi Jews.

The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach Hebrew language , “liturgical tradition” used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur prayer book. A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers.

In researching traditional Sephardic seders, one of the foods that caught my eye was the charoset. Symbolizing the mortar used by enslaved Jews to build Pharaoh’s pyramids, charoset is made with apples, chopped nuts and spices in the Ashkenazi culture.

You can help by adding to it. June Jewish populations have existed in the area even before the country was established , back to the Roman era province of Lusitania , even though an attested Jewish presence in Portuguese territory, can only be documented since CE. In , the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula was seen by many in the Jewish population as a liberation, and marked as the beginning of what many have seen as the Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula the Islamic Al-Andalus , even if the Jews, as well as the Christians the Mozarabs of the Visigothic rite , under Muslim rule were considered Dhimmi , and had to pay a special tax.

Rapidly in the 8th century, the Christian kingdoms of the north mountainous areas of the Iberian Peninsula Kingdom of Asturias started a long military campaign against the Muslim invaders, the Reconquista. The Jews, since many knew the Arabic language , were used by the Christians as both spies and diplomats on this campaign that took centuries. This granted them some respect, although there was always prejudice.

BUCHAREST (BUCURESTI) [Boo koo reshte’]

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This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message Touro Synagogue Interior Touro Synagogue was designed by noted British architect and Rhode Island resident Peter Harrison and is considered his most notable work.

The interior is flanked by a series of twelve Ionic columns supporting balconies which signify the twelve tribes of ancient Israel, and each column is carved from a single tree. The building is oriented to face east toward Jerusalem. The ark containing the Torah is on the east wall; above it is a mural representing the Ten Commandments in Hebrew which was painted by Newport artist Benjamin Howland.

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A new study concludes that all Ashkenazi Jews can trace their ancestry to a “bottleneck” of just individuals, dating back to between and years ago.

Editor and journalist focusing on politics, economics, cities, and culture. May 30 Searching for Don Menachem: Clean and orderly in a sun-beaten Southern European way, one can imagine how the scenery might have looked a half-millennium ago. Castles, walls, and churches remain from many centuries into the past. Minus the modern irrigation techniques and sleek vehicles zipping by, life continues much the same in Castilla-La Mancha.

This part of contemporary Spain — the legendary setting for Don Quixote — has seen more than a few conflicts over time, but now, olive plantations and serene vineyards make up the wide-open and placid Spanish heartland adjacent to the capital. Formerly part of New Castile, along with Madrid, the region at one point was just the eastern part of a Moorish kingdom, the taifa of Toledo. Convivencia — coexistence among the three monotheistic faiths — was shattered by an endless series of wars and sieges, before the Reconquista instituted a harsh brand of Catholicism.

The rural Spanish region famous for Manchego cheese, windmills, and sunflowers. The city of Cuenca, which has around 57, inhabitants, has a new town with no shortage of Spanish banks, a Zara store, and a maze of commercial streets with quaint eateries that serve up quintessential Castilian cuisine. At corner bars, thirsty patrons sip Mahou beer and nibble on tortillas espanolas. Regardless, what remains in Cuenca of erstwhile Jewish life is scant.

Jews, Africans In Slavery, and Curacao

Yiddish was the language of Ashkenazic Jews, but not Sephardic Jews Yiddish is based on German, Hebrew and other languages Yiddish uses an alphabet based on Hebrew There are standards for transliterating Yiddish Yiddish was criticized as a barrier to assimilation Yiddish developed rich literature, theater and music S’iz shver tsu zayn a Yid It’s tough to be a Jew – Yiddish folk saying [Yiddish] A hybrid of Hebrew and medieval German, Yiddish takes about three-quarters of its vocabulary from German, but borrows words liberally from Hebrew and many other languages from the many lands where Ashkenazic Jews have lived.

It has a grammatical structure all its own, and is written in an alphabet based on Hebrew characters. Scholars and universities classify Yiddish as a Germanic language, though some have questioned that classification. They had their own international language known as Ladino or Judesmo, which is a hybrid of medieval Spanish and Hebrew in much the same way that Yiddish combines German and Hebrew.

At its height less than a century ago, Yiddish was understood by an estimated 11 million of the world’s 18 million Jews, and many of them spoke Yiddish as their primary language.

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Donations Most Ancient Tombstones These tombstones were neglected for decades until when they were restored to a dignified manner. Some of these tombstones are broken and therefore are not easy to read. In any case, we feel it is best to present them here in order for people to appreciate them as a genealogical resource. They are located in the area of the cemetery shown in the photo below: Moshe Sidi Translation: Burial stone of the dear, the honor of our master, Moshe Sidi, departed to the house of his world, and was buried the 22nd day of the month of Av, the year May his soul be bound in the bond of life.

History of the Jews in Portugal

This section is courtesy of Ms. Rennon The following walks are designed to guide you around the four main areas of Bucharest, pointing out several unique sights. Stray from the routes as you wish, as you’re sure to find other interesting places along the way that are not mentioned here. Allow approximately three hours for each walk.

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As an Ashkenazi Jew, there are so many restrictions on what you can and cannot eat during Passover that I ultimately end up living off of salad , matzoh, and boxed Manischewitz mixes for its duration. There are plenty of yummy dishes to eat at the seder — tsimmis, matzoh ball soup, flour-less chocolate cake, and of course macaroons. Shockingly enough, I am actually very excited to celebrate Passover in Israel this year. After all, when in Israel, do as the Israelis do, right?

In researching traditional Sephardic seders, one of the foods that caught my eye was the charoset. Sephardic and Israeli charoset is made with dates, giving it a thicker, more pasty consistency than the chunky Ashkenazi version. Passover this year is already shaping up to be an interesting — and dare I say tasty? Makes about 2 cups Note: I used walnuts to make my charoset, but almonds are also recommended for Sephardic charoset — a combination of the two would also be good! Add the cinnamon and mix well.

Serve alone, or more traditionally, with matzoh.

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