Adjunct Professor Nigel Spooner

Although the loss of these ice shelves does not contribute directly to rising sea levels, they make an indirect contribution, since their loss is thought to lead to faster flow rates and faster mass loss among the glaciers that are feeding them. As a result of the mass loss, GPS measurements of the last 20 years show that the land across the Antarctic Peninsula has been rising faster. We will reconstruct past sea levels using optically stimulated luminescence OSL to date a series of raised beaches along the eastern Antarctic Peninsula. The goal at ECU is to refine OSL surface dating of rocks with conventional and imaging methods , to test the influence of cobble size and rock type on luminescence properties, and to provide ages for the collected samples. A UCSB student will help with sample preparation. The applicant will obtain a Ph.

Thermally and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Laboratory

Two types of procedures can be distinguished: However, their precision is restricted due to methodological limits the use of several aliquots to obtain only one equivalent dose, obtained by extrapolation of the natural signal on a curve derived from various laboratory doses. On the contrary, the regenerative procedures provide more precise ages as they make it possible to obtain by interpolation a similar number of equivalent dose measurements to aliquot measurements.

Luminescence dating utilises energy deposited in mineral lattices by naturally occurring ionising radiation to record information encoding chronology, depositional process information, and thermal history records in ceramics, lithics, and sedimentary materials.

Optically Stimulated Luminescence OSL dating has emerged within the last 20 years as a key Quaternary absolute dating tool, with a wide range of terrestrial and marine applications. Optical dating techniques employ ubiquitous quartz or feldspar grains to directly date the deposition of sedimentary units. As such, the optical dating methods allow the systematic chronological evaluation of Quaternary-age sedimentary sequences. Within the School of Geography and the Environment, the OLD Laboratory provides support particularly for the Landscape Dynamics research cluster, with a specific focus on low latitude environment and climate change, geoarchaeology and geomorphology.

In addition our researchers continuously engage in efforts to improve and develop the methodology and to further advance our knowledge on the fundamental physical mechanisms underlying the dating method. The OLD Laboratory also provides a commercial luminescence dating service and works closely with clients in industry, archaeological organizations, environmental institutes and other academic groups.

Labs and Research Groups

Freiberger Forschungsheft C Geowissenschaften, S. Natural stone, weathering phenomena, conservation strategies and case studies. Geological Society Special Publications, London, Cathodoluminescence and its application in the planetary sciences. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, Peer-reviewed articles in Journals and anthologies 1.

All U.S.-based laboratories operate under standard protocols like optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of quartz, and/or infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) of feldspar, and some specialize in other capabilities like single-grain and/or fine-grain dating, pulsed luminescence, and/or thermal transfer OSL.

Luminescence Research Laboratory Introduction Luminescence is light emitted from samples that have been previously excited by exposure to an external energy source. In many dielectric materials, including mineral systems, stimulated luminescence can be produced following exposure to ionising radiation as a result of charge-trapping and detrapping processes at defect sites within the lattice of the material.

Common applications of such phenomena include luminescence dating and radiation dosimetry. David Sanderson in , conducts developmental and application work in diverse fields including luminescence dating, detection of irradiated foods and assessment of fire damage to concrete structures. The laboratory operates in dual-support mode. In addition to research projects linked to external grants and contracts, collaborative research projects are conducted with the consortium universities.

There is also some capacity for undertaking luminescence dating for external users. Enquiries should be directed to Prof. David Sanderson email David.

The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Laboratory

Luminescence dating In the laboratory, the accumulated radiation dose can be measured, but this by itself is insufficient to determine the time since the zeroing event. Arnold a Martina Demuro a Josep Luminescence dating. Journal of Archaeological Science. Please refer to this blog post for more information. About Megan Robles luminescence dating Optically-Stimulated Luminescence is a late Quaternary dating technique used to date the last time quartz sediment was exposed to light.

QUADRU – Quaternary Dating Research Unit, Pretoria. UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND. NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory. Oxford University – Research Lab for Archaeology and Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit. SURRC Radiocarbon Laboratory. Luminescence Dating Laboratory Aberystwyth.

The age is calculated by dividing this dose by the natural dose-rate in the environment from which the mineral was sampled. The simplified equation for calculating the age of the sample is: Typical materials used for dating are Quaternary sediments, which usually contain quartz and feldspar. Generally, these minerals are very common in all sediments. Natural radionuclides 40K, 87Rb, U-Th-series emit ionising radiation that impacts with the minerals by moving electrons to metastable states in defects of the crystal lattice.

The charge at the metastable state is stored for extended periods of time until the electrons are released when absorbing external energy. During the stimulation process the trapped electrons decay from the metastable state and cause the emission of light photons in shorter wavelength, which is detected as luminescence signal by the luminescence reader. The signal intensity depends on the time elapsed since the last light- or heat impact on the material and — as a very first approximation — the higher the luminescence signal intensity, the higher the accumulated dose and — in consequence — the older the sample.

Lund Luminescence Laboratory

Links The principles of Luminescence Dating Luminescence dating is used to identify when a sample was last exposed to daylight or extreme heat by estimating the amount of ionising radiation absorbed since burial or firing. This equation very simply expresses the calculations necessary, but it is important to be aware of the factors influencing the two values used.

Heterogeneous sediments and radioactive disequilibria will increase errors on Dr, while incomplete bleaching of the sample prior to burial, anomalous fading in feldspars, and the estimation of past sediment moisture content may all also add to increased errors. The dating of sediments using the luminescence signal generated by optical stimulation OSL offers an independent dating tool, and is used most often on the commonly occurring minerals of quartz and feldspar and, as such, has proved particularly useful in situations devoid of the organic component used in radiocarbon dating.

Quartz has been used for dating to at least ka, while the deeper traps of feldspar have produced dates as old as 1 ma. The use of fine-grain dating for samples such as pottery, loess, burnt flint and lacustrine sediments, and coarse-grain dating of aeolian, fluvial and glacial sediments is regularly undertaken.

Luminescence Research Lab Aberystwyth Luminescence Research Laboratory Luminescence dating has become a widely recognised and important tool in deciphering Quaternary issues.

A zincblende unit cell Structure Zinc oxide crystallizes in two main forms , hexagonal wurtzite [17] and cubic zincblende. The wurtzite structure is most stable at ambient conditions and thus most common. The zincblende form can be stabilized by growing ZnO on substrates with cubic lattice structure. In both cases, the zinc and oxide centers are tetrahedral , the most characteristic geometry for Zn II.

ZnO converts to the rocksalt motif at relatively high pressures about 10 GPa. This and other lattice symmetry properties result in piezoelectricity of the hexagonal and zincblende ZnO, and pyroelectricity of hexagonal ZnO. This property accounts for the preferential formation of wurtzite rather than zinc blende structure, [19] as well as the strong piezoelectricity of ZnO. Because of the polar Zn-O bonds, zinc and oxygen planes are electrically charged.

To maintain electrical neutrality, those planes reconstruct at atomic level in most relative materials, but not in ZnO — its surfaces are atomically flat, stable and exhibit no reconstruction. This anomaly of ZnO is not fully explained. Mechanical properties ZnO is a relatively soft material with approximate hardness of 4. The high heat capacity and heat conductivity, low thermal expansion and high melting temperature of ZnO are beneficial for ceramics.

New Luminescence Lab shines light on the past at Macquarie

In the sciences, it is important to distinguish between precision and accuracy. If we use the analogue of a clock we can investigate this further. Your wrist watch may measure time with a precision of one second. A stop watch may time your race with a precision of one hundredth of a second.

The CLL is focused on constraining Quaternary environmental change in a range of environmental settings. Specific research objectives are focused on coastal settings,geoarchaeological applications, extending the age range of luminescence dating using radiofluorescence, exploration of luminescence-thermochronometry, constraining complex environmental dosimetry and the application of ESR dating.

The Laboratory The laboratory is located at the 7th floor of the Roxby building. It was purpose-built and comprises 3 rooms for sample preparation and measurement. Equipment Besides conventional facilities for sample preparation oven, sieving machine, flatbed shaker etc. Research Our luminescence research follows 4 major topics: Improving our understanding of luminescence properties of quartz and feldspar dosimeters Shen, Z.

Optical dating of young deltaic deposits on a decadal time scale. Quaternary Geochronology, in press. Yellow stimulated luminescence from potassium feldspar: Observations on its suitability for dating. Radiation Measurements, in press. Radiation Measurements 41, Micro-imaging synchrotron-laser interactions in wide band-gap luminescent materials —Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 40,

Waikato Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory

Not the least fortuitous aspect is their exquisitely tranquil setting in the West Coast National Park. Situated on the Atlantic coast some kilometres north of Cape Town, the turquoise Langebaan Lagoon, laced by azure tidal channels and flanked by lowering granite domes, is the showpiece of the Park. In the early autumn of , I was picnicking with a group of friends on the beach at Kraal Bay, on the western shores of the lagoon, enjoying the sweeping views.

The sandstone cliffs flanking the bay represent ancient coastal dunes formed by sand blown from the beach. The northward sloping cross- beds, recording ancient dune surfaces, are superbly exposed see figure. I knew that the fossil prints of a large carnivore had been found in the cliffs at Kraal Bay in

Luminescence dating Kari Eskola, researcher Luminescence is a phenomenon occurring in crystal materials, when electrons, trapped in special energy stages (traps) caused by defects in crystal structures, are released and emitting light (luminescence) which wavelength corresponds the change in charge carriers energy stages during the process.

Archeological research, as generally practiced, shares with the rest of anthropology and the other social sciences a concern for the recurrent, patterned aspects of human behavior rather than with the isolation of the unique. It is historical in the sense that it deals with human behavior viewed through time and supplements written sources with the documentation provided by artifactual evidence from the past. During the century or so of its existence as a recognizable scholarly discipline, archeology has come more and more to apply scientific procedures to the collection and analysis of its data, even when its subject matter could be considered humanistic as well as scientific.

Archeology can also be properly regarded as a set of specialized techniques for obtaining cultural data from the past, data that may be used by anthropologists, historians, art critics, economists, or any others interested in man and his activities. This view has the advantage of eliminating the argument whether archeology is anthropology or history and allows for recognition of the varied, sometimes incompatible, purposes for which archeological data and conclusions are used.

There is no reason to regard the archeology of Beazley, who analyzes Greek black-figure vases, as identical with the archeology of MacNeish, who has excavated plant remains of the earliest Mexican farmers. No other reliable means is available to extend backward our knowledge of culture, since traditional histories, orally transmitted, are not only shallow in their time depth but subject to many distortions with the passage of time. It has provided an essential check on theories of cultural evolution and is substituting fact for fancy in such matters as the origins of plant and animal domestication and the beginnings of writing, urbanization, and other crucial steps toward civilization.

Are Modern Humans Really Older Than We Thought?


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